For Carmen González Enríquez, who published her study in September 2013, almost concurrently with Amparo González-Ferrer, 700,000 appear to be a “very exaggerated number, lacking arguments.” “But she includes all the [Spanish] native born and others [foreign nationals]. Perhaps by including everyone … ,” she concedes unconvinced. For Amparo González it is “very bad” not to include them, “not for ideological reasons, but for pragmatic reasons.” She counts them as emigrated Spaniards because they can also return to Spain whenever they want, regardless of how they acquired citizenship. The reasons González Enríquez gives for not including them is that do not fit the definition of emigrées, because many have returned to their country of birth: “They are not emigrées, because by definition they are thosse who don’t live in their country of origin. It is a Spaniard living abroad but not an emigrée. We have to clarify that sometimes the figures do not represent the same thing depending on what we’re talking about. “
These 40,000 only represents Spaniards born in Spain who have taken the trouble to go to a consulate, sometimes hundreds of miles away, and have not had any qualms about registering in the PERE. Between January 2009 and January 2013, the years Gonzalez analyzed, there were 6% more registrations than in previous years. If from the 1,931,248 Spaniards living abroad registered in the PERE.the PERE as of January 2013, you subtract 1,471,691 from January 2009, the balance left is 459,557. Carmen González polishes the result eliminating 20th century migrants, their descendants and the immigrants who obtained Spanish nationality.